What is Diabetes?
Diabetes is a disease in which blood glucose levels are above normal.
It occurs when insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas to regulate
blood sugar, is not enough or is not used effectively by the body that
leads to sugar build up in the blood.
What are the types of Diabetes?
Previously called insulin dependent diabetes mellitus or juvenile-onset diabetes. Characterized by deficient insulin production and requires daily administration of insulin. May account for about 5% of all diagnosed cases.
Previously called non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus or adult-onset diabetes. Comprises 90% of people with diabetes around the world and is largely the result of excess body weight and physical inactivity.
Develops in 2% to 10% of all pregnancies but usually disappears when a pregnancy is over.
Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT)/
Impaired fasting glycemia
Elevated blood glucose level is higher than normal but is not high
enough to be diagnosed as diabetes. There is a high risk of progressing to Type 2 diabetes if they do not lose weight or exercise.
Involves lowering of blood glucose and the levels of other known
risk factors that damage blood vessels. Cessation of smoking is also
important to avoid complications.
People with diabetes should adhere to medications regularly to avoid
Signs and Symptoms
- Frequent urination
- Weight loss
- Excessive thirst
- Lack of energy
- Increased hunger
- Slow healing wounds
- Tingling sensation or numbness in the hands or feet
- Blurred vision
Cardiovascular diseases, heart attack, kidney failure and amputation.
Prevention and Control
These lifestyle changes is effective in preventing or delaying the onset of type 2 diabetes:
- Achieve and maintain a healthy weight.
- Be physically active. At least 30 minutes of regular physical
- Eat a healthy diet. Reduce sugar and saturated fat intake.